Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography.


This paper describes an autostereoscopic image overlay technique that is integrated into a surgical navigation system to superimpose a real three-dimensional (3-D) image onto the patient via a half-silvered mirror. The images are created by employing a modified version of integral videography (IV), which is an animated extension of integral photography. IV records and reproduces 3-D images using a microconvex lens array and flat display; it can display geometrically accurate 3-D autostereoscopic images and reproduce motion parallax without the need for special devices. The use of semitransparent display devices makes it appear that the 3-D image is inside the patient’s body. This is the first report of applying an autostereoscopic display with an image overlay system in surgical navigation. Experiments demonstrated that the fast IV rendering technique and patient-image registration method produce an average registration accuracy of 1.13 mm. Experiments using a target in phantom agar showed that the system can guide a needle toward a target with an average error of 2.6 mm. Improvement in the quality of the IV display will make this system practical and its use will increase surgical accuracy and reduce invasiveness.